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The Essentials of Cardiothoracic Surgery for Your

A combination of two types of surgeries forms the one primary type of surgery.

The first of the combined words, i.e. Cardiac Surgery, is related to heart diseases and the ones that house in the vessels, along with all the organs that are found inside the rib cage. On the other hand, the second half of cardiothoracic, i.e. thoracic puts its focus on dealing with issues related to the lungs. So, when we do talk about both of them together, becoming cardiothoracic surgery, we talk about attending to various conditions like:

  • Aortic Valve Disease

  • Atrial Septal Defects

  • Coronary Artery Disease

  • Lung Cancer

  • Tetralogy of Fallot and Esophageal Cancer

  • Ventricular Septal Defects

Multiple factors cause cardio-thoracic diseases like poor lifestyle and diet, genetic factors, stress induced and also certain addictions like tobacco, alcohol dependence etc. There have been multiple research papers released over the years that clearly state the side effects of consuming tobacco and cholesterol-rich foods — both of these increase a person’s chance of being affected by cardiothoracic diseases. As technology and medicine advance, a cure for each of the thoracic organs, namely, heart, lungs, oesophagus, etc. with cardiothoracic treatments can be treated. There are several myths associated with cardiothoracic surgery, and it is essential that we bust them for you.

Facts About Cardiothoracic Surgery 1. General Thoracic Surgery, Adult Cardiac Surgery, Congenital Cardiac Surgery, and Heart and Lung Transplant Surgery are all included in the umbrella term as being the primary sectors. 2. For both men and women, there may be a difference in the kind of cardiothoracic surgery approach that a doctor takes. This is because of the difference in cases and how they show symptoms related to the heart and lungs. 3. Cardiac surgeons are known to perform Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery, Heart Valve Surgery, and Aortic Surgery. 4. Experiencing extreme amounts of pain and discomfort in the chest or other organs is not the only reason why you must consider cardiothoracic surgery. There are chances that you may not feel any of the symptoms concerning a disease. This is why getting regular cardiothoracic consultation from your doctor is necessary. You must also consider going to the doctor frequently if you have a history of being sick often or any other issues related to the chest or lungs. 5. Of the various surgeries, cyst, lung cancer, oesophageal cancer, tumour, pectus, as well as key-hole thoracic surgeries are performed by a thoracic surgeon. Alright. Now, we hope that you are able to keep in mind all the above-mentioned points and act on them as you should be. Pranayam Lung & Heart Institute assures you that you will get the best care from us. Check us out here. Apart from cardiothoracic surgeries, our interventional pulmonologists also perform EBUS, which is a minimally invasive procedure performed for taking lung biopsies without the need of open lung surgeries (thoracic surgeries) Let’s talk about a few of the conditions that can be treated with cardiothoracic surgery:

1. Heart Failure- Simply put and understood, the heart becomes too weak to pump enough blood to the entire body. While the process is gradual, it is still as dangerous, and you should get regular checkups.

2. Coronary Artery Disease- The blood vessels in the heart become blocked, which limit the to and fro of the supply of blood. Cardiothoracic surgery is advised to all those who may suffer from the disease.

3. Mitral Valve Regurgitation- Blood that goes into the left ventricle flows right back into the left atrium because the valve has been affected in the disease.

4. Mitral Valve Prolapse- The mitral valve does not open and close appropriately in this disease, causing some significant issues.

5. Myocardial Infarction- The muscular layer of the heart, i.e. the myocardium does not get enough blood supply or oxygen to keep functioning as it should. We get a heart attack because this keeps continuing for a long time. This was all related to the diseases and conditions that would require you to get under the knife and have a doctor perform cardiothoracic surgery to make you better. Several procedures are included in the process that cardiothoracic surgeons perform on a patient.

The Treatments Patients visit cardiothoracic doctors with conditions that can only be treated by them since they are highly specialised.

1. Left Ventricle Restoration Also known as the Dor procedure, takes care of the left ventricle. Surgeons can take care of heart attacks, congestive heart failure, and specific kinds of aneurysms. In the process of the surgery, the left ventricle is reshaped, and the dead or scarred tissue is removed. Doing so improves the heart’s ability to pump blood to the body. Said procedure is done along with coronary bypass surgery and/or valve repair.

2. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) In cardiothoracic surgery performed on the coronary artery, fully functioning veins from different parts of the body are grafted to the coronary arteries. This relieves angina and reduces the risk of death associated with the disease. Arteries become blocked or narrowed over the years, and the grafted veins work as a different route for the blood to reach the heart muscle. For those who are not great candidates for angioplasty or coronary stenting, CABG is the next best option to save their lives.

3. Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections fixed with Surgery In this surgical process, the first step is to take a look at the heart and see if there is an aneurysm or dissection through an echocardiogram or computed tomography (CT), chest X-ray, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Once they have a clear picture in hand, the procedure can begin, and the damaged section of the heart is repaired with a specially woven material known as a graft.

4. Lung and Esophageal Resection Malignant or benign diseases can affect the lungs and the oesophagus, which would require patients to visit a doctor and get treated with cardiothoracic surgery. Here, the damaged tissue is removed with a series of incisions. In most cases, doctors try to perform the surgery with smaller cuts so that they do not cause as much pain and also take up less recovery time.

5. Mitral and Aortic Valve Repair and Replacement As we read before, the issue is related to heart valves that leak or are blocked. For most doctors, they would prefer to salvage as much of the native valve as possible. In case the damage is too much, they are bound to turn to other methods of ensuring the patient's health and safety on the table. Of the methods used, tissue or mechanical prostheses, or the implantation of human donor tissue is used. There are several minimally invasive procedures that can be opted for by doctors if the patient’s condition allows them to do so.

6. Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Radiofrequency Ablation The condition which causes irregular heartbeats causes severe discomfort, shortness of breath, and dizziness in patients. If patients are not able to diagnose themselves and are reluctant in seeing a doctor, they could risk getting a stroke. As a part of cardiothoracic surgery, the condition of irregular heartbeats is treated by creating precise scar lines on the heart’s surface. This blocks the electrical impulses that are known to be erratic.

7. Mediastinal Tumors These are known to be abnormal tissues that grow inside the chest cavity and in between the lungs. The tumours can be found in a wide range of ages and can either be benign or malignant, i.e. cancerous tumours. Of the surgical treatment options available, one is thoracotomy, wherein an incision is made to the chest to perform the surgery. The other options also include mediastinoscopy and thoracoscopy. So there you have it. The diseases that require cardiothoracic surgery, the treatments that can be received by the patient, and what the term really means. With this basic set of knowledge, it should become a tad bit easier for you to understand the importance of getting a regular checkup. Pranayam Lung & Heart Institute is a multi-speciality hospital in Vadodara, Gujarat, that has been on a journey to create a healthy society for the last four decades. We’re an ideal module that aims at curing patients of various respiratory and cardiac diseases with the help of experts and high-end technology. Our doctors will go the extra mile to make sure that you are given the care you need. Talk to us today for more information.

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